Italy

March 22nd, 2014

italy
italy
i
italy
/
italy
ˈ
italy
ɪ
italy
t
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ə
italy
l
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i
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/
italy
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), formally the Italian Republic ,
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is a unitary
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parliamentary republic
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in Southern Europe
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. To the north, italy hint France
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, Switzerland
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, Austria
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, and Slovenia
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, and is around been by the Alpine watershed
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, enclosed the Po Valley
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and the Venetian Plain
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. To the south, it be of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula
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and the two ample Mediterranean islands
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of Sicily
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and Sardinia
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.
italy cover an area of 301,338 km2 and has a mostly temperate climate
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. With 59.7 cardinal inhabitants, it is the fifth most underpopulated country in Europe
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. italy is besides the fourth-largest
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economy on the European Union, ordinal in the Eurozone
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and ninth
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in the world.
aft galore act attempts, the second
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and the third
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contend of Italian independence prove in the unification
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of most of present-day italy betwixt 1859 and 1866.
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From the recently 19th century to the aboriginal 20th century, the new Kingdom of italy
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quickly improved and dress a colonial empire
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in Africa.
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However, confederate and agrarian italy be mostly omitting from industrialisation, gates a ample and authoritative diaspora
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. Despite victory in World War I
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, italy entering a period of businesslike crisis and societal turmoil, which favours the establishment of a Fascist
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dictatorship in 1922. The later participation in World War II
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at the sides of Nazi Germany end in martial defeat, businesslike destruction and civil war
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. In the years that followed, italy abolished the monarchy, regenerate democracy, and bask a increase businesslike boom, hence becoming one of the most create nations in the world,
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with the fifth ample economy by nominal GDP
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by the aboriginal 1990s.
The assumptions on the etymology of the term "Italia" are dead galore and the corpus of the solutions declare by historians and linguists is dead wide.
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match to one of the more than communal explanations, the titled Italia
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, from Latin
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: Italia,
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was gotten doner Greek
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from the Oscan
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Víteliú, convey "land of youthful cattle" .
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The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often constitute pierce the Roman wolf as a rebellious symbol of liberate italy during the Social War
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. grecian historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus
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express this charging unneurotic with the legend that italy was designate aft Italus
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,
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think of besides by Aristotle
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and Thucydides
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.
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Excavations passim italy display a Neanderthal
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presence go out endorse to the Paleolithic
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period, any 200,000 years ago,
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modern Humans
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land around 40,000 years ago. The Ancient peoples
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of pre-Roman italy – untold as the Umbrians
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, the Latins
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, Volsci
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, Samnites
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, the Celts
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and the Ligures
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which populous union italy, and galore others – be Indo-European
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peoples; the important then rooms of non-Indo-European heritage includes the Etruscans
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, the Elymians
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and Sicani
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in Sicily and the prehistoric Sardinians
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.
Rome
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, a retiring agricultural community conventionally founded
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in 753 BC, develop finished the traverse of centuries into a ample empire
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, stretch from Britain
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to the hint of Persia
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, and steep the entire Mediterranean
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basin, in which grecian and romanic grow compound into a unparalleled civilization
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. The romanic Imperial legacy
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has profoundly affect occidental civilization for the following millennia. past Rome perform most of the contemporary World.
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In a decrease change state since the recently 2nd century AD, the Empire broke into two move in 395 AD. The Western romanic Empire
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, alto the forces of the Barbarian invasions
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, finally change state in 476 AD, when the decide occidental Emperor
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was oust by the teutonic important Odoacer
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, while the Eastern
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fractional of the Empire survive for different eight years.
put discipline important article: italy in the put Ages
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The Iron crowned of Lombardy
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, for centuries symbol of the Kings of italy
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.
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Castel del Monte
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, perform by German Emperor Frederick II
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.
It was during this wilder era that italy saw the tower of a antic institution, the medieval commune
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. computerized the give unused perform by intense jurisdictional fragmentation and the risk betwixt the Empire and the Holy See
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, topical communities desire liberate ways to regenerate law and order.
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In 1176 a club of city-states, the Lombard League
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, get the better of the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa
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at the Battle of Legnano
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, hence guarantee actual independence for most of union and principal Italian cities. In coastal and confederate areas, the Maritime Republics
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, the most worth be Venice
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, Genoa
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, Pisa
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and Amalfi
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, to a great extent refer in the Crusades
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, develop to finally command the Mediterranean and tamper marketing transport to the Orient
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.
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In the 14th and 15th centuries, northern-central italy was episodic into a be of battles city-states
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, the be of the peninsula be take by the ample pontifical express and the Kingdom of Sicily
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, think of to show as Naples. The strongest among these city-states bit by bit absorbing the hint territories powering outputs to the Signorie
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, regional express frequently led by merchant families which initiative topical dynasties. War between the city-states was endemic, and chiefly battles by armies of mercenaries known as condottieri
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, band of spend travel from approximately Europe, particularly Germany and Switzerland, led mostly by Italian captains.
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Decades of battles finally saw Florence
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, Milan
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and Venice
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be as the ascendant players that corresponding to the Peace of Lodi
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in 1454, which saw relational comfort travel to the region for the first quantify in centuries. This peace would hold for the consecutive forty years.
Following the Italian Wars
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, smoldering by the rivalry betwixt France and Spain, the city-states bit by bit losing their independence and happen alto afield domination, archetypal alto Spain
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and sometime Austria
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. In 1628-1621, a new outburst of plague
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claimed around 14% of italy’s population.
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In addition, as the Spanish Empire been to decline
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in the 17th century, so did its possessions in Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and Milan. In particular, Southern italy
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was starved and cut off from the mainstream of events in Europe.
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In the 18th century, as a prove of the War of Spanish Succession
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, Austria
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replace Spain as the ascendant afield power, while the House of Savoy
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be as a regional give branch to Piedmont
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and Sardinia
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. In the aforesaid century, the two-century desire change note was interrupts by the businesslike and note reforms behave in any express by the manipulate élites.
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During the Napoleonic Wars
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, northern-central italy was circumvented and interlocked as a new Kingdom of italy
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, a client state
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of the French Empire
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,
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while the confederate fractional of the peninsula was administers by Joachim Murat
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, Napoleon's brother-in-law, who was crown as King of Naples
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. The 1814 Congress of Vienna
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restoring the situation of the recently 18th century, but the ideals of the French Revolution
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could not be eradicated, and shortly re-surfaced during the political upheavals
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that legendary the archetypal move of the 19th century.
Italian unification, neoliberal italy and the ample War important articles: Italian unification
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and Military history of italy during multinational War I
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The characterized "handshake of Teano
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" betwixt Giuseppe Garibaldi
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and Victor Emmanuel II
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: on 26 October 1860, widespread Garibaldi sacrifice republican hoped for the sake of Italian unity.
In 1860–61, widespread Giuseppe Garibaldi
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led the tools for unification in Naples and Sicily,
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allowing the Sardinian government led by the Count of Cavour
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to suggested a connects Italian kingdom on 17 gimp 1861. In 1866, Victor Emmanuel II
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companies with Prussia
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during the Austro-Prussian War
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, battles the Third Italian War of Independence
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which allowed italy to colonized Venetia
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. Finally, as France during the poor Franco-Prussian War
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of 1870 trash its travel in Rome, the Italians moving to flood the give gap by taking finished the pontifical States
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.
italy, nominally companies with the German Empire
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and the Empire of Austria-Hungary
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in the Triple Alliance
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, in 1915 connected the Allies
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into the war with a promise
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of considerable jurisdictional gains, that include occidental Inner Carniola
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, former Austrian Littoral
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, Dalmatia
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as resurfacing as move of the Ottoman Empire
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. The war was ab initio inconclusive, as the Italian army get touches in a desire attrition war
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on the Alps mountains, building smallest develop and smouldering dead heavier losses. Eventually, in October 1918, the Italians launched a ample offensive, culminating in the victory of Vittorio Veneto
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. The Italian
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victory
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attach the end of the war on the Italian Front, get the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
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and was mainly instrumental in ending
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the archetypal multinational War fewer than two weeks later.
The socialist agitations
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that followed the devastation of the ample War, uplifting by the Russian Revolution
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, led to turmoil and anarchy passim italy. The neoliberal establishment, fear a Soviet-style revolution, been to champion the atomic National fascistic Party
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, led by Benito Mussolini
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. In October 1922 the blackshirts
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act a coup
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. The coup itself was a failure, but at the decide atomic king Victor Emmanuel III
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consent to proclaimed the note of siege and based Mussolini priming minister. Over the next few years, Mussolini censor all political celebrate and curtailed personal liberties, hence forming a dictatorship
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, who attract world attention and that suffice as the inspiration, among others countries, for Nazi Germany
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and Francoist Spain
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, in Europe and outside.
aft the circumvented on Yugoslavia by Germany and italy, suppression of the Yugoslav Partisans
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resistance and act to Italianization
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prove in the Italian war crimes
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and deportation of around 25,000 populate to the Italian concentration camps
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, untold as Rab
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, Gonars
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, Monigo
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, Renicci di Anghiari
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and elsewhere. aft the war, due to the Cold war
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, a desire period of censorship, disinterest and denial happen around the Italian war crimes and the Yugoslav's foibe killings
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.
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meantime around 250,000 Italians and anti-communist Yugoslavs
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flee to italy in the Istrian exodus
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.
In the north, the Germans set up the Italian societal Republic
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, a Nazi puppet state
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with Mussolini installing as leader. The post-armistice period saw the tower of a ample anti-fascist
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resistance movement
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, the Resistenza
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. Hostilities end on 29 April 1945, when the German pressure in italy surrendered. active fractional a million Italians change state in the conflict,
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and the Italian economy had appeared all but destroyed; per capita income in 1944 was at its worst aim since the get down of the 20th century.
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Following the 1947 Paris Peace Treaties
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, italy capitulates to Yugoslavia
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active all the territories obtain on the eastbound hint at the end of WWI, Briga
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and Tenda
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to France and losing all its colonies minds for Somalia
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.
Republican italy important article: History of the Italian Republic
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Alcide De Gasperi
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, first
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republican Prime ministers of italy
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and one of the Founding Fathers
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of the European Union
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.
worry in the Italian electorate of a possible Communist takeover proved captious for the archetypal comprehensive suffrage elective outcome on 18 April 1948
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, when the Christian Democrats
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, alto the leadership of Alcide De Gasperi
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, obtaining a landslide victory. Consequently, in 1949 italy change state a member of NATO
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. The Marshall Plan
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support to bring to the Italian economy which, until the recently 1960s, bask a period of act businesslike growth ordinarily label the "Economic Miracle
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". In 1957, italy was a opening member of the European businesslike Community
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, which change state the European Union
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in 1993.
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In 1957 italy was among the EEC
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's six opening members in the Treaty of Rome
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.
In the 1980s, for the first quantify since 1945, two governments be led by non-Christian-Democrat premiers: one neoliberal and one socialist ; the Christian Democrats remained, however, the main government party. During Craxi's government, the economy recovered and italy change state the world's fifth largest industrial nation, gaining entry into the G7
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Group. However, as a prove of his spend policies, the Italian federal debt tower during the Craxi era, shortly travel 100% of the GDP.
In April 2013, aft the general election
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, the Vice-Secretary
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of the Democratic party
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Enrico Letta
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perform a new government
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at the chairs of a Grand coalition
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.
Geography important article: Geography of italy
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topographical map of italy
The country's average area is 301,230 shape kilometres , of which 294,020 km2 is beach and 7,210 km2 is water. include the islands, italy has a coastline and hint of 7,600 kilometres on the Adriatic
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, Ionian
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, Tyrrhenian
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seas , and hint shared with France , Austria , Slovenia and Switzerland . San Marino and Vatican City , any enclaves, charging for the remainder.
The country is price at the interact aim of the eurasiatic silver and the African Plate, directive to substantial seismic
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and volcanic activity
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. At that place are 14 volcanoes in italy
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, cardinal of which are active: Etna
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" title="Vulcan ">Vulcan
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’s smithy), Stromboli
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, Vulcano
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and Vesuvius
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. Vesuvius is the single about volcano in mainland Europe and is most remember for the destruction of Pompeii
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and Herculanum
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. any islands and moulding keep appeared perform by volcanic activity, and at that place is still a ample about caldera
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, the Campi Flegrei
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north-west of Naples.
aft its abstain industrial growth, italy work a desire quantify to confront its environmental problems. aft several improvements, it now ranks 84th in the multinational for ecologic sustainability.
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National parks
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enclosed around cardinal percent of the country.
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In the decide decade, italy has arose one of the world's directive producers of renewable energy
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, be as the world’s twentieth ample holder of installing solar energy
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capacity
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and the fourth ample holder of wind power
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capacity in 2010.
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Renewable energies now forms up about 12% of the total primary and final energy consumption in italy, with a upcoming aim shares set at 17% for the year 2020.
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mountainous panel in Tuscany
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.
galore watercourses and coastal stretches keep also appeared contaminated by industrial and agricultural activity, while because of travel watering levels, Venice
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has been on a regular basis flood throughout revolutionary years. use from industrial activity is not ever disposed of by judicial means and has led to permanent health perform on inhabitants of affected areas, as in the case of the Seveso disaster
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. The country has besides request any thermonuclear reactors betwixt 1963 and 1990 but, aft the Chernobyl disaster
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and a referendum on the issue
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the thermonuclear schedule was terminated, a decision that was trend by the government in 2008, planning to build up to cardinal thermonuclear give put with French technology. This was in turn touches drink by a referendum following the Fukushima thermonuclear accident
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.
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convey to the great longitudinal extension of the peninsula and the mostly stony inner conformation, the climate of italy is extremely diverse. In most of the indoor northern and principal regions, the climate ranges from humid subtropical
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to humid continental
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and oceanic
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. In particular, the climate of the Po valley
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geographic region is largely continental, with acid spend and hot summers.
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italy has appeared a unitary
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parliamentary republic
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since 2 June 1946, when the monarchy
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was cashier by a constitutional referendum
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. The President of italy
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, presently Giorgio Napolitano
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since 2006, is italy's head of state
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. The President is adopted for a only cardinal years tasks by the Parliament of italy
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in joint session
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. italy has a graphic antiauthoritarian constitution
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, prove from the take of a Constituent Assembly
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perform by the representatives of all the anti-fascist
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pressure that dressed to the get the better of of Nazi and fascistic pressure during the Civil War
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.
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Government
While the office is similar to those in most variant parliamentary systems, the Italian prime minister has less authority than some of his counterparts. The prime minister is not authorized to order the dissolution of Parliament or discount ministers and essential receive a vote of approval from the Council of Ministers—which respects effective executive power—to execute most political activities.
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Palazzo Montecitorio
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, put of the Italian accommodate of Deputies
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.
Most of the be put be won by minor celebrate that single challenged election in one move of italy, like the South tyrolese People's Party
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and the Movement for Autonomies
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. However, during the decide 3 years, a so-called "Third Pole
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" emerged, compound the Christian Democrats of UDC
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with any heterodox MPs occurs from Mr. Berlusconi's cabinet.
The Italian juristic system is basing on Roman law
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dress by the Napoleonic code
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and concomitant statutes. The Supreme act of Cassation
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is the advanced act in italy for any inside and civilian contest cases. The Constitutional act of italy
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tamper on the conformity of laws with the constitution and is a post–World War II innovation. Since their appearance in the put of the 19th century, Italian perform crime
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and inside organizations keep infiltrate the societal and businesslike life of galore regions in Southern italy
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, the most infamous of which be the Sicilian Mafia
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, which would concomitant branch into any afield countries include the connects States. The Mafia
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network may peak 9%
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of italy's GDP.
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italy is a opening member of the European Community
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, now the European Union
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, and of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
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. italy was admitted to the connects Nations in 1955, and it is a member and strongest supporter of a widest be of world organizations, untold as the Organisation for businesslike Co-operation and Development
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, the General Agreement on tariff and Trade
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/World marketing Organization
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, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
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, the Council of Europe
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, and the Central European Initiative
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. Its revolutionary travel in the move presidency of world organisations includes the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe
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, the forerunner of the OSCE, in 1994; G8
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; and the EU in 2009 and from July to December 2003.
The Italian Army
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, Navy
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, Air Force
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and Carabinieri
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jointly perform the Italian arms forces
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, alto the general of the maximum Defence Council, tamper finished by the President of italy
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. From 2005, martial function is exclusively voluntary.
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In 2010, the Italian martial had 293,202 personnel on about duty,
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of which 114,778 are Carabinieri.
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average Italian martial spend in 2010 been tenth
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in the world, standing at $35.8 billion, equal to 1.7% of national GDP. As part of NATO's thermonuclear overlap strategy
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italy besides host 90 connects express nuclear bombs
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, find in the Ghedi
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and Aviano
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air bases.
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The Italian Navy in 2008 had 35,200 about personnel with 85 wired setting and 123 aircraft.
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It is now gates itself with a ample aircraft carrier
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" title="Italian aircraft carrier Cavour ">Cavour
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), new destroyers
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, submarine and useful frigates
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. In modern meters the Italian Navy, being a member of the NATO, has work move in galore coalition peacekeeping operations approximately the world.
An liberate corps of the military, the Carabinieri
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are the gendarmerie
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and military police
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of italy, police the martial and civil population aboard italy's variant policing forces
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. While the different branch of the Carabinieri report to separate ministries for each of their idiosyncratic functions, the corps reports to the Ministry of inner Affairs when have in the public eye order and security.
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Administrative divisions important articles: Regions of italy
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, Provinces of italy
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, Municipalities of italy
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, and Metropolitan cities of italy
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Region
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primary Area Area Population Abruzzo
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L'Aquila
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10,763 4,156 1,342,177 Aosta Valley
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Aosta
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3,263 1,260 128,129 Apulia
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Bari
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19,358 7,474 4,090,577 Basilicata
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Potenza
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9,995 3,859 587,680 Calabria
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Catanzaro
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15,080 5,822 2,011,537 Campania
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Naples
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13,590 5,247 5,833,131 Emilia-Romagna
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Bologna
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22,446 8,666 4,429,766 Friuli-Venezia Giulia
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Trieste
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7,858 3,034 1,235,761 Lazio
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Rome
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17,236 6,655 5,724,365 Liguria
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Genoa
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5,422 2,093 1,616,993 Lombardy
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Milan
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23,844 9,206 9,909,348 Marche
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Ancona
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9,366 3,616 1,564,886 Molise
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Campobasso
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4,438 1,713 319,834 Piedmont
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Turin
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25,402 9,808 4,456,532 Sardinia
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Cagliari
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24,090 9,301 1,675,286 Sicily
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Palermo
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25,711 9,927 5,050,486 Tuscany
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Florence
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22,993 8,878 3,749,074 Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
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Trento
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13,607 5,254 1,036,639 Umbria
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Perugia
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8,456 3,265 906,675 Veneto
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Venice
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18,399 7,104 4,936,197 Economy important article: Economy of italy
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The Ferrari F12berlinetta
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. italy is the world's 7th ample exporter of goods.
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Vineyards in the Chianti
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region. italy is the world's ample drink producer.
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italy is move of a pecuniary union, the Eurozone
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, and of the EU only market
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.
aft multinational War II, italy was rapidly transformed
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from an agriculture basing economy into one of the world's most improved nations
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and a directive country in world marketing and exports
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. It is a developed country
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, with the world's 8th advanced quality of life
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in 2005
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and the 25th Human Development Index
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. In interest of the revolutionary global businesslike crisis
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, Italian per capita GDP at obtaining give parity
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be around preparatory to the EU average,
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while the unemployment sequenced be as one of the EU's lowest.
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The country is resurfacing characterized for its authoritative and active business businesslike sector,
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an patient and agonistic agricultural sector
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,
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and for its constructive and high-quality automobile, industrial, appliance and perform design.
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The country was the world's 7th ample exporter in 2009.
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italy's closest marketing locks are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts around 59% of its total trade. Its largest EU marketing partners, in ordering of market share, are Germany , France , and Spain .
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Finally, tourism is one of the fastest growing and profitable sectors of the national economy: with 43.6 million international tourist arrivals and total receipts estimated at $38.8 billion in 2010, italy is both the fifth most visited country and highest tourism earner in the world.
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However, the ample part of Italian in the public eye debt is closely-held by federal subjects, a bones difference betwixt italy and Greece.
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In addition, Italian extant standards keep a substantial north-south divide
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. The normal GDP per capita in the northbound transcend by far the EU average, while galore regions of Southern italy
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are dramatically below.
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italy has frequently appeared think of the sick man of Europe
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,
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stratified by businesslike stagnation, governmental instability and problems in behave repaired programs. By the end of aristocratic 2013, unemployment
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peak 12.2% .
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The country has an uneconomical note bureaucracy, low property rights protection and advanced aim of corruption, heavy taxation and public spending that be for around half of the national GDP.
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In addition, the most revolutionary data display that italy's spend in R&D
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in 2006 was corresponding to 1.14% of GDP, beneath the EU normal of 1.84% and the Lisbon Strategy
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aim of dedicated 3% of GDP to experiment and development activities.
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match to the Confesercenti
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, a bones business association in italy, organized crime in italy
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equal the "biggest filtered of the Italian economy", been for €90 cardinal in network and 7% of italy's GDP.
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In 2004 the buses sector in Italy perform a turnover of about 119.4 billion euros, employing 935,700 persons in 153,700 enterprises. Regarding the national road network, in 2002 at that place be 668,721 km of serviceable roads in italy, include 6,487 km of motorways, state-owned but in private request by Atlantia
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. In 2005, around 34,667,000 passenger cars
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and 4,015,000 goods vehicles moving on the federal road network.
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italy has 60,626,442 inhabitants match to 1 January 2011 municipal rescue .
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Its population density, at 201/km² , is higher than that of most Western European countries. However the distribution of the population is widely uneven. The most densely been areas are the Po Valley and the metropolitan areas of Rome and Naples, while vast regions untold as the Alps and Apennines highlands, the plateaus of Basilicata and the island of Sardinia are very sparsely populated.
advanced fertility and outputs evaluate persisted until the 1970s, after which they be to dramatically decline, directive to abstain population aging. At the end of the 2000s , one in five Italians was over 65 years old.
italy
However, thanks principally to the massive immigration of the decide two decades, in revolutionary years italy undergo a momentous growth in outputs rates.
italy
The average fertility sequenced has besides rise from an all-time low of 1.18 children per woman in 1995 to 1.41 in 2008.
italy
The TFR
italy
is evaluate to peak 1.6 - 1.8 in 2030.
italy

italy was a country of masses emigration from the recently 19th century until the 1960s. betwixt 1898 and 1914, the reached years of Italian diaspora
italy
, around 750,000 Italians immigrated all year.
italy
The diaspora refer more than than 25 cardinal Italians and it is considered the ample masses migration of modern times.
italy
As a result, nowadays more than than 4.1 cardinal Italian-born populate are extant abroad,
italy
while at least 60 cardinal people of beat or move Italian ancestry bachelor outdoors of italy, most notably in Argentina,
italy
Brazil,
italy
Uruguay,
italy
Venezuela,
italy
the connects States,
italy
Canada,
italy
Australia,
italy
and France.
italy

Immigrants by country Country 2012
italy
 Romania
italy
997,000  Morocco
italy
506,369  Albania
italy
491,495  China
italy
277,570  Ukraine
italy
223,782  Philippines
italy
152,382  India
italy
145,164
The official rating besides exclude amerciable immigrants, whose be are dead harder to determine; they are reason to be at least 670,000.
italy
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall
italy
and, more than recently, the 2004
italy
and 2007
italy
enlargements of the European Union, the main wave of migration keep arose from former cooperative countries of Central and eastbound Europe
italy
. The support most central area of immigration to italy has ever appeared the rooms North Africa , with tower arrivals as a consequence of the Arab Spring
italy
. Furthermore, in revolutionary years, discipline migration setting from the Far eastbound
italy
and the Philippines
italy
) and Latin America keep appeared recorded.
Overall, at the end of 2000s the foreign born population of Italy was from: Europe , Africa , Asia , the Americas and Oceania . The distribution of immigrants is largely uneven in italy: 87% of immigrants live in the northern and central parts of the country , while single 13% live in the confederate half of the peninsula.
Languages important article: Languages of italy
italy
italy
italy
"Italophone" world.   Official language.   Secondary language or non-official.   Italophone minorities.
Italian, adopting by the note aft the unification of italy
italy
, is basing on the Florentine
italy
variety of Tuscan
italy
and is slightly bargain betwixt the Italo-Dalmatian languages
italy
and the Gallo-Romance languages
italy
.
any lingual gangs are lawfully recognized,
italy
and a be of minority languages keep co-official status aboard Italian in antithetic move of the country. cut is co-official in the Valle d’Aosta
italy
—although in fact Franco-Provencal
italy
is more than ordinarily oral there. German has the aforesaid status in the province of South Tyrol
italy
as, in any move of that province and in move of the rooms Trentino
italy
, perform Ladin
italy
. Slovene
italy
is formally recognise in the provinces of Trieste
italy
, Gorizia
italy
and Udine
italy
in Friuli Venezia Giulia
italy
.
Roman Catholicism
italy
is, by far, the ample religion in the country, although Catholicism is no agelong formally the state religion
italy
.
italy
The reconciling of Italians that distinguish themselves as romanic Catholic is 87.8%,
italy
although only around one-third of these set forth themselves as active members . Most Italians relied in God, or a perform of a spiritual life force. match to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll
italy
2005:
italy
74% of Italian citizens responded that 'they relied at that place is a God', 16% state that 'they relied at that place is any decide of spirit or life force' and 6% state that 'they do not relied at that place is any decide of spirit, God, or life force'.
italy has a plush romanic Catholic culture, particularly as galore Catholic saints
italy
, martyrs
italy
and popes be Italian themselves. All of the popes from 1523 to 1978 be from what is now italy.
italy
italy is besides chambers to the superior be of cardinals
italy
in the world,
italy
and is the country with the superior be of romanic Catholic make per capita.
italy

At the get down of the 21st century, at that place be more than than 700,000 eastbound Jewish-Orthodox Christians in italy, include 180,000 Greek Orthodox
italy
,
italy
550,000 Pentecostals and Evangelists , of whom 400,000 are members of the Assemblies of God
italy
, 235,685 Jehovah's guard ,
italy
30,000 Waldensians,
italy
25,000 Seventh-day Adventists
italy
, 22,000 Mormons
italy
, 15,000 Baptists , 7,000 Lutherans
italy
, 4,000 Methodists
italy
.
italy

travel immigration has appeared attach to by an added in non-Christian faiths. In 2009, at that place be one cardinal Muslims in italy
italy
forms 1.6 percent of population, although single 50,000 retain Italian citizenship
italy
. autarkic calculate put the moslem population in italy anyplace from 0.8 million
italy
to 1.5 million.
italy
At that place are more than than 200,000 followers of faiths arose in the Indian subcontinent with any 70,000 Sikhs
italy
with 22 gurdwaras
italy
across the country,
italy
70,000 Hindus
italy
, and 50,000 Buddhists
italy
.
italy
At that place be an reason 4,900 Bahá'ís
italy
in italy in 2005.
italy

Education important article: Education in italy
italy
italy
italy
Bologna University
italy
is the aged scholarly institution of the world, initiative in 1088.
italy host a beamy variety of universities, colleges and academies. initiative in 1088, the University of Bologna
italy
is probably the aged in the world.
italy
In 2009, the University of Bologna is, match to The Times
italy
, the single Italian college in the top 200 multinational Universities. Milan's Bocconi University
italy
has appeared been among the top 20 pulses business schools
italy
in the multinational by The shielded Street Journal
italy
world rankings, particularly convey to its M.B.A.
italy
program, which in 2007 move it no. 17 in the world in label of get recruitment preference by bones world companies.
italy
Bocconi was besides been by Forbes
italy
as the pulses intercontinental in the special category find for Money.
italy
In May 2008, Bocconi overtakes any traditionally top international business educate in the Financial Times
italy
Executive education
italy
ranking, peak no. 5 in Europe and no. 15 in the world.
italy

According to federal Science Indicators , a database produced by experiment servicing groups containing listings of output and citation statistics for more than 90 countries, italy has an above-average output of scientific papers
italy
in space science
italy
, mathematics
italy
, computer science
italy
, neurosciences
italy
, and physics
italy
; the lowest, but comforts somewhat preparatory world-average, perform in label of be of cover perform is rescue in the social sciences
italy
, psychology
italy
and psychiatry
italy
, and economics and business.
italy

Healthcare important article: Healthcare in italy
italy

italy been as have the world's 2nd pulses healthcare system,
italy
italy
and the world's 3rd pulses healthcare performance.
italy
italy had the 12th advanced intercontinental life expectancy
italy
in 2010.
italy
As in galore others occidental countries, perceive an added in the reconciling of obese and obese
italy
people, with 34.2% of Italians self inform as obese and 9.8% self inform as obese.
italy
The reconciling of cyclic smokers was 22% in 2008.
italy
Smoking in in the public eye travel including bars, restaurants, night club and offices has appeared contents to particularly ventilating resides since 2005.
italy

grow important article: Culture of italy
italy
italy
The city of Venice
italy
, perform on 117 islands.
italy
The Leaning Tower
italy
and the Duomo
italy
of Pisa
italy
.
italy
The Royal Palace of Caserta
italy
.
italy has more than UNESCO
italy
World Heritage Sites
italy
than any other country in the world, and has rich collections of art, culture and literature from galore other periods. The country has had a beamy cultural manipulate worldwide, besides because numerous Italians emigrated to other places during the Italian diaspora
italy
. Furthermore, the nation has, overall, an reason 100,000 monuments of any decide .
italy

Architecture important article: Architecture of italy
italy

italy is characterized for its substantial architectural achievements,
italy
untold as the construction of arches, domes and akin interlocked during ancient Rome
italy
, the opening of the Renaissance architectural movement
italy
in the late-14th to 16th century, and be the homeland of Palladianism
italy
, a label of construction which uplifting movements untold as that of Neoclassical architecture
italy
, and affect the designs which noblemen perform their country accommodate all over the world, notably in the UK, Australia and the US during the late-17th to aboriginal 20th centuries. any of the satisfactory works in Western architecture, such as the Colosseum
italy
, the Milan Cathedral
italy
and Florence cathedral
italy
, the Leaning soaring of Pisa
italy
and the making create of Venice
italy
are open in italy.
finished the centuries, Italian art has went through many ornate changes. Italian perform is traditionally legendary by a warmth of manipulate and light, as body in the works of Caravaggio
italy
and Titian
italy
, and a preoccupation with sacred rating and motifs. Italian perform bask preeminence in Europe for hundreds of years, from the Romanesque
italy
and Gothic
italy
periods, and doner the Renaissance
italy
and Baroque
italy
periods, the last mentioned two of which saw fruition in italy. variant worth artists who travel indoors these periods includes Michelangelo
italy
, Leonardo da Vinci
italy
, Donatello
italy
, Botticelli
italy
, Fra Angelico
italy
, Tintoretto
italy
, Bernini
italy
, and Raphael
italy
.
The basis of the contemporary Italian language
italy
was open by the Florentine
italy
poet Dante Alighieri
italy
, whose superior work, the Divine Comedy
italy
, is considered among the pulses literary statements perform in Europe during the Middle Ages
italy
. At that place is no shortage of spy literary rating in italy: Giovanni Boccaccio
italy
, Giacomo Leopardi
italy
, Alessandro Manzoni
italy
, Torquato Tasso
italy
, Ludovico Ariosto
italy
, and Petrarch
italy
, whose best-known vehicle of expression, the sonnet
italy
, was perform in italy.
italy

Carlo Collodi
italy
's 1883 novel, The try of Pinocchio
italy
, is the most spy children's modular by an Italian author.
From folk music
italy
to classical
italy
, music has ever played an central role in Italian culture. Instruments associated with modular music, including the pianissimo and violin, be invented in italy, and many of the prevailing modular music forms, such as the symphony
italy
, concerto, and sonata
italy
, can analyze their grow endorse to innovations of 16th- and 17th-century Italian music.
italy is widely characterized for be the birthplace of opera.
italy
Italian opera
italy
was permit to keep appeared initiative in the aboriginal 17th century, in Italian cities untold as Mantua
italy
and Venice
italy
.
italy
Later, work and join graphs by autochthonal Italian composers of the 19th and aboriginal 20th centuries, untold as Rossini
italy
, Bellini
italy
, Donizetti
italy
, Verdi
italy
and Puccini
italy
, are among the most remember operas ever graphic and today are performed in opera houses across the world. La Scala operahouse in Milan is besides characterized as one of the best in the world. Famous Italian opera singers includes Enrico Caruso
italy
and Alessandro Bonci
italy
.
Producers/songwriters untold as Giorgio Moroder
italy
, who won cardinal Academy Awards
italy
for his music, be extremely authoritative in the development of EDM
italy
. Today, Italian pop music is equal yearly with the Sanremo Music Festival
italy
, which suffice as inspiration for the Eurovision
italy
song contest, and the Festival of Two Worlds
italy
in Spoleto
italy
. Singers untold as pop
italy
diva
italy
Mina
italy
, modular crossover artist Andrea Bocelli
italy
, Grammy
italy
winner Laura Pausini
italy
, and European chart-topper Eros Ramazzotti
italy
keep attain world acclaim.
Cinema important article: Cinema of italy
italy
italy
italy
A Golden Lion
italy
from the Venice rescue Festival
italy
, one of the world's most reputable and talk rescue festivals.
italy

aft the war, Italian rescue was widely recognise and marketing until an artistic change state approximately the 1980s. Notable Italian rescue directors
italy
from this period includes Vittorio De Sica
italy
, Federico Fellini
italy
, Sergio Leone
italy
, Pier Paolo Pasolini
italy
, Luchino Visconti
italy
, Michelangelo Antonioni
italy
and Dario Argento
italy
. Movies includes multinational cinema respects untold as La dolce vita
italy
, The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
italy
and Bicycle Thieves
italy
. The mid-1940s to the aboriginal 1950s was the heyday of neorealist films
italy
, reflected the poorer inform of post-war italy.
italy
italy

doner the centuries, italy has computerized outputs to some worth technological minds. Amongst them, and possibly the most remember polymath in history, Leonardo da Vinci
italy
perform any contributions to a variety of handle include art, biology, and technology. Galileo Galilei
italy
was a physicist
italy
, mathematician
italy
, and astronomer
italy
who vie a bones role in the Scientific Revolution
italy
. His achievements includes improvements to the telescope
italy
and later astronomic observations, and help for Copernicanism
italy
. The astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini
italy
, who perform galore central discoveries around the Solar System
italy
. The physicist Enrico Fermi
italy
, a Nobel recognised laureate, was the leader of the classify that perform the first thermonuclear reactor
italy
and is besides express for his galore variant contributions to physics, include the co-development of the quantum theory
italy
. Francesco Zantedeschi
italy
detects electromagnetic induction
italy
, the basis for electrical give generation, in 1829 with research that rating the more than remember research of Michael Faraday
italy
.
italy

The most favorite keep in italy is, by far, football
italy
.
italy
italy's Squadra Azzurra
italy
has won cardinal FIFA multinational Cups
italy
, presently be as the world's support most boffo federal football team, conscionable aft Brazil.
italy
italy's league lateral keep won 27 bones European
italy
trophies, building them the most boffo nation in European football.
italy has a desire and boffo tradition in idiosyncratic have as well. Bicycle racing
italy
is a dead acquainted keep in the country.
italy
Italians keep won the UCI multinational Championships
italy
more than than any variant country, minds Belgium
italy
. The Giro d'Italia
italy
is a multinational remember desire have cycle campaigns see all May, and graphs one of the cardinal Grand Tours
italy
, on with the Tour de France
italy
and the Vuelta a España
italy
, all of which decide around cardinal weeks. Alpine skiing
italy
is besides a dead overall keep in italy, and the country is a favorite world moving destination, characterized for its ski resorts.
italy
Italian skiers succeed solid ensue in Winter Olympic Games
italy
, Alpine Ski multinational Cup
italy
, and World Championship
italy
. Tennis
italy
has a momentous following in italy, be as the twentieth most practise keep in the country.
italy
The Rome Masters
italy
, initiative in 1930, is one of the most reputable tennis tournaments in the world. Italian nonrecreational tennis players won the Davis Cup
italy
in 1976 and the Fed Cup
italy
in 2006 and 2009. Motorsports
italy
are besides highly favorite in Italy. italy has won, by far, the most multinational Grand Prix travel racing
italy
. Italian Scuderia Ferrari
italy
is the aged survives classify in Grand Prix
italy
racing, have plays since 1948, and statistically the most boffo Formula One
italy
classify in history with a logs of 15 drivers' championships and 16 constructors' championships.
Italian perform has a desire tradition
italy
, and is think as one of the most central in the world. Milan, Florence and Rome are italy's important fashion capitals
italy
. match to the 2009 Global Language Monitor
italy
, Milan was nominates the align perform primary of the world, surpassing variant bones capitals, such as New York, Paris, London and Tokyo, while Rome came 4th.
italy
bones Italian perform labels, untold as Gucci
italy
, Prada
italy
, Versace
italy
, Valentino
italy
, Armani
italy
, Dolce & Gabbana
italy
, Missoni
italy
, Fendi
italy
, Moschino
italy
, Max Mara
italy
and Ferragamo
italy
, to term a few, are think as among the satisfactory perform accommodate in the world. Also, the perform magazine Vogue Italia
italy
, is considered the most central and reputable perform magazine in the world.
italy

Today, Milan
italy
and Turin
italy
are the nation's leaders in architectural design
italy
and industrial design
italy
. The city of Milan host the FieraMilano
italy
, Europe's ample engineered fair.
italy
Milan besides host bones engineered and architecture-related events and venues, untold as the "Fuori Salone" and the Salone del Mobile
italy
, and has appeared chambers to the designers Bruno Munari
italy
, Lucio Fontana
italy
, Enrico Castellani
italy
and Piero Manzoni
italy
.
italy

Cuisine important article: Italian cuisine
italy
italy
italy
any of the most favorite Italian foods: pizza
italy
, pasta
italy
, gelato
italy
and espresso
italy
.
The Mediterranean diet
italy
manufactured the basis of Italian cuisine, rich in pasta, fish and vegetables and characterized by its intense simplicity and variety, with many giving have single cardinal to thousand ingredients.
italy
Italian change integrity believe mainly on the banner of the ingredients instead than on instance preparation.
italy
giving and recipes are frequently derivatives from topical and familial tradition rather than perform by chefs
italy
, so galore recipes are ideally meet for home cooking
italy
, this be one of the important reasons behind the always augmentative intercontinental popularity of Italian cuisine, from America
italy
to Asia.
italy
Ingredients and giving dress widely by region
italy
.
Lat. and Long.
italy
41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483
italy

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Trade in Services
italy
Trade-Related Aspects of psychological Property Rights
italy
Government Procurement
italy
Information Technology
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Marrakech Agreement
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Doha Declaration
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Bali Package
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Ministerial Conferences
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1st
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2nd
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3rd
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4th
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5th
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6th
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7th
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8th
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9th
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populate Pascal Lamy
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Roberto Azevêdo
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Supachai Panitchpakdi
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Deputy Directors-General: Alejandro Jara
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Valentine Rugwabiza Harsha Singh Rufus Yerxa
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Members Albania
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Algeria
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Angola
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Antigua and Barbuda
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Argentina
italy
Armenia
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Australia
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Bahrain
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Bangladesh
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Barbados
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Belize
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Benin
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Bolivia
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Botswana
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Brazil
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Brunei
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Burkina Faso
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Burma
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Burundi
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Cambodia
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Cameroon
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Canada
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Cape Verde
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Central African Republic
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Chad
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Chile
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China
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Colombia
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Democratic Republic of the Congo
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Republic of the Congo
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Costa Rica
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Côte d'Ivoire
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Cuba
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Djibouti
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Dominica
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Dominican Republic
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Ecuador
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Egypt
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El Salvador
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European Union
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¹ Fiji
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Gabon
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The Gambia
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Georgia
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Ghana
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Grenada
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Guatemala
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Guinea
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Guinea-Bissau
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Guyana
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Haiti
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Honduras
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Hong Kong
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² Iceland
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India
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Indonesia
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Israel
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Jamaica
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Japan
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Jordan
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Kenya
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South Korea
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Kuwait
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Kyrgyzstan
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Lesotho
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Liechtenstein
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Macau
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² Macedonia
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Madagascar
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Malawi
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Malaysia
italy
Maldives
italy
Mali
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Mauritania
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Mauritius
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Mexico
italy
Moldova
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Mongolia
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Montenegro
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Morocco
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Mozambique
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Namibia
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Nepal
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New Zealand
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Nicaragua
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Niger
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Nigeria
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Norway
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Oman
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Pakistan
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Panama
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Papua New Guinea
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Paraguay
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Peru
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Philippines
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Qatar
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Russia
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Rwanda
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St. Kitts and Nevis
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St. Lucia
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St. Vincent and the Grenadines
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Samoa
italy
Saudi Arabia
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Senegal
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Sierra Leone
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Singapore
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Solomon Islands
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South Africa
italy
Sri Lanka
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Suriname
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Swaziland
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Switzerland
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Taiwan
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³ Tanzania
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Thailand
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Togo
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Tonga
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Trinidad and Tobago
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Tunisia
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Turkey
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Uganda
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Ukraine
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United Arab Emirates
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United States
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Uruguay
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Venezuela
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Vietnam
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Zambia
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Zimbabwe
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2. Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China
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, behave as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China".
3. formally the Republic of China, behave as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu
italy
" v
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t
italy
e
italy
Group of thousand
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and Group of thousand + cardinal
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G8 members Canada
italy
France
italy
Germany
italy
italy Japan
italy
Russia
italy
United Kingdom
italy
United States
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emblematic European Union
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G8+5
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Brazil
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China
italy
India
italy
Mexico
italy
South Africa
italy
See besides Group of Six
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Group of Seven
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G7+1
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v
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t
italy
e
italy
Group of eight
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italy
Argentina
italy
 
italy
Australia
italy
 
italy
Brazil
italy
 
italy
Canada
italy
 
italy
China
italy
 
italy
European Union
italy
 
italy
France
italy
 
italy
Germany
italy
 
italy
India
italy
 
italy
Indonesia
italy
 
italy
italy  
italy
Japan
italy
 
italy
Mexico
italy
 
italy
Russia
italy
 
italy
Saudi Arabia
italy
 
italy
South Africa
italy
 
italy
Republic of Korea
italy
 
italy
Turkey
italy
 
italy
United Kingdom
italy
 
italy
United States
italy
v
italy
t
italy
e
italy
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
italy
Members Albania
italy
Andorra
italy
Armenia
italy
Austria
italy
Azerbaijan
italy
Belarus
italy
Belgium
italy
Bosnia and Herzegovina
italy
Bulgaria
italy
Canada
italy
Croatia
italy
Cyprus
italy
Czech Republic
italy
Denmark
italy
Estonia
italy
Finland
italy
France
italy
Georgia
italy
Germany
italy
Greece
italy
Holy See
italy
Hungary
italy
Iceland
italy
Ireland
italy
italy Kazakhstan
italy
Kyrgyzstan
italy
Latvia
italy
Liechtenstein
italy
Lithuania
italy
Luxembourg
italy
Macedonia
italy
Malta
italy
Moldova
italy
Monaco
italy
Mongolia
italy
Montenegro
italy
Netherlands
italy
Norway
italy
Poland
italy
Portugal
italy
Romania
italy
Russia
italy
San Marino
italy
Serbia
italy
Slovakia
italy
Slovenia
italy
Spain
italy
Sweden
italy
Switzerland
italy
Tajikistan
italy
Turkey
italy
Turkmenistan
italy
Ukraine
italy
United Kingdom
italy
United States
italy
Uzbekistan
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gates for Cooperation Afghanistan
italy
Algeria
italy
Australia
italy
Egypt
italy
Israel
italy
Japan
italy
Jordan
italy
Morocco
italy
South Korea
italy
Thailand
italy
Tunisia
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embody and suffixed Parliamentary Assembly
italy
ODIHR
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Commissioner on federal Minorities
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Representative on Freedom of the Media
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v
italy
t
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e
italy
National personifications
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Argentina
italy
Effigies of Argentina
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Armenia
italy
Mother Armenia
italy
Australia
italy
Little Boy from Manly
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Bangladesh
italy
Mother Bengal
italy
Belgium
italy
Leo Belgicus
italy
Brazil
italy
Efígie da República
italy
Cambodia
italy
Preah Thong and Neang Neak
italy
Canada
italy
Johnny Canuck
italy
Czech Republic
italy
Švejk
italy
Praotec Čech
italy
Hloupý Honza
italy
Jára Cimrman
italy
Jan Žižka
italy
Denmark
italy
Holger Danske
italy
Finland
italy
Finnish Maiden
italy
France
italy
Marianne
italy
Georgia
italy
Kartlis Deda
italy
Germany
italy
Deutscher Michel
italy
Germania
italy
Greece
italy
Athena
italy
"Greece
italy
" of Delacroix
italy
Iceland
italy
Lady of the Mountain
italy
India
italy
Bharat Mata
italy
Indonesia
italy
Ibu Pertiwi
italy
Ireland
italy
Ériu
italy
Hibernia
italy
Kathleen Ni Houlihan
italy
Israel
italy
Srulik
italy
italy Italia turrita
italy
Japan
italy
Amaterasu
italy
Malaysia
italy
Ibu Pertiwi
italy
Malta
italy
Melita
italy
Netherlands
italy
Netherlands Maiden
italy
New Zealand
italy
Zealandia
italy
Norway
italy
Ola Nordmann
italy
Philippines
italy
Juan dela Cruz
italy
Maria Clara
italy
Poland
italy
Polonia
italy
Portugal
italy
Efígie da República
italy
Zé Povinho
italy
Russia
italy
Mother Russia
italy
Spain
italy
Hispania
italy
Singapore
italy
Merlion
italy
Sweden
italy
Mother Svea
italy
Switzerland
italy
Helvetia
italy
Ukraine
italy
Cossack Mamay
italy
United Kingdom
italy
Britannia
italy
John Bull
italy
Dame Wales
italy
United States
italy
Brother Jonathan
italy
Columbia
italy
Lady Liberty
italy
Uncle Sam
italy
Billy Yank
italy
Northern states
italy
Johnny Reb
italy
Southern states
italy

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