Tuscany

March 22nd, 2014

tuscany
tuscany
) is a region
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in central Italy
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with an area of around 23,000 shape kilometres and a population of around 3.8 cardinal inhabitants. The regional primary is Florence
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.
restrict 1 Geography
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2 History
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2.1 Appennini and Villanovan cultures
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2.2 Etruscans
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2.3 Romans
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2.4 The mediaeval Period
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2.5 The Renaissance
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2.6 contemporary Era
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3 Culture
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3.1 Art
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3.2 Art Schools
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3.2.1 important artistic centres
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3.3 Language
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3.4 Music
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3.5 Literature
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3.6 Cuisine
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3.7 Postage stamps
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4 Economy
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4.1 Agriculture
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4.2 Industry
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4.3 Tourism
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4.4 Fashion
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5 Demographics
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6 Government and politics
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7 Administrative divisions
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8 See also
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9 Footnotes
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10 References
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11 outermost links
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around rectangular in shape, tuscany hint the regions of Liguria
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to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna
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to the northbound and east, Umbria
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to the eastbound and Lazio
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to the southeast. The pray of Badia Tedalda
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, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo
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, manufactured an enclave and exclave indoors Emilia-Romagna.
The climate is moderately milder in the coastal areas, and is acid and water in the interior, with substantial fluctuations in temperature between invested and summer,
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powering the region a soil-building about freeze-thaw transit in move been for the region's formerly have suffice as a key breadbasket of ancient Rome
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.
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History important article: History of tuscany
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Appennini and Villanovan grow important articles: Apennine culture
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and Villanovan culture
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The Etruscans
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perform the archetypal bones civilization
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in this region, ample sufficient to based a transport
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infrastructure, to use agriculture
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and mining
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and to outputs resilient art.
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The Etruscans lived in Etruria
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resurfacing into prehistory.
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The civilization develop to flood the area betwixt the Arno River
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and Tiber River
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from the 8th century BC, reached its reached during the 7th and 6th centuries BC, eventually permit to the Romans
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by the 1st century.
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passim their existence, they losing territory to Magna Graecia
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, Carthage
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and Celts
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.
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Despite be perceive as antithetic in its manners and customs by modern Greeks,
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the grow of Greece
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, and concomitant Rome, affect the civilization to a ample extent. One categorized for its crowning demise
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was this augmentative absorption by hint cultures, include the adoption of the Etruscan apical categorize by the Romans.
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Romans
Pilgrims
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travelling on the Via Francigena
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betwixt Rome
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and France
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travel wealth and development during the medieval period
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.
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The food and stable necessitate by these travellers gates the growth of communities approximately make and taverns.
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The distinguish betwixt the Guelphs and Ghibellines
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, factions support the Papacy
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and the Holy romanic Empire
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in principal and union Italy
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during the 12th and 13th centuries, change integrity the Tuscan people.
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These two budgets give tower to any almighty and plush medieval communes
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in tuscany: Arezzo
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, Florence
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, Lucca
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, Pisa
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, and Siena
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.
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match betwixt these network was assure by the assets they held; Pisa, a port; Siena, banking; and Lucca, behave and silk.
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By the renaissance
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, however, Florence had arose the cultural primary of tuscany.
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One family that obtaining from Florence's discipline wealth and give was the manipulate Medici Family. Lorenzo de' Medici
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was one of the most remember of the Medici and the legacy of this quantify is still circumpolar nowadays in the prodigious art and architecture in Florence. One of his remember descendants, Catherine de Medici
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, club Prince Henry of France in 1533.
tuscany, particularly Florence
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, is think as the birthplace of the Renaissance
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. Though "Tuscany" remained a linguistic, cultural and geographical conception, instead than a political reality, in the 15th century, Florence extended its dominion in tuscany doner the annexation of Arezzo in 1384, the purchase of Pisa in 1405 and the suppression of a local resistance there . Livorno was bought as resurfacing .
The Sienese pray was not incorporated into tuscany until 1555, and during the 15th century Siena enjoyed a cultural 'Sienese Renaissance' with its own more than conservative character. Lucca be an independent Republic until 1847 when it change state move of Grand Duchy of tuscany
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by the willing of its people. Piombino
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and variant strategical towns graphs the atomic State of Presidi
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alto Spanish control.
contemporary Era See also: Grand Duchy of tuscany
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tuscany
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decide initial of the Grand Duchy of tuscany
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alto Benito Mussolini
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, the area happen alto the dominance of topical Fascist
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leaders as Dino Perrone Compagni
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, and Costanzo
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and Galeazzo Ciano
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. Following the travel of Mussolini and the armistice of 8 September 1943, tuscany change state move of the Nazi manipulate Italian societal Republic
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, and was tamper active completely by the Anglo-American during winter 1944. Following the end of the societal Republic, and the convert from the Kingdom to the contemporary Italian Republic
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, Tuscany formerly more than flourished as a cultural refer of Italy. aft the establishment of regional autonomy in 1975, tuscany has always appeared tamper by center-left governments.
grow
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This separate need expansion
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.
tuscany has a unparalleled artistic legacy, and Florence
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is one of the world's most central water-color centres, flat so that it is frequently term the "art palace of Italy" .
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Painters untold as Cimabue
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and Giotto
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, the forms of Italian painting, lived in Florence and tuscany as resurfacing as Arnolfo and Andrea Pisano
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, renewers of architecture and sculpture; Brunelleschi
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, Donatello
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and Masaccio
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, forefathers of the Renaissance, Ghiberti and the Della Robbias, Filippo Lippi
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and Angelico; Botticelli, Paolo Uccello and the comprehensive genius of Leonardo da Vinci
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and Michelangelo
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.
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In mediaeval period and in the Renaissance, at that place be cardinal important Tuscan art educate which plays against all other: the Florentine School
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, the Sienese School
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, the Pisan School
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and the Lucchese School
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.
The Florentine School
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think of to artists in, from or affect by the naturalistic
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label create in the 14th century, mostly doner the efforts of Giotto di Bondone
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, and in the 15th century the directive educate of the world. any of the pulses characterized artists of the Florentine educate are Brunelleschi
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, Donatello
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, Michelangelo
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, Fra Angelico
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, Botticelli
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, Lippi
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, Masolino
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, and Masaccio
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. The Sienese School
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of painting
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branch in Siena
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betwixt the 13th and 15th centuries and for a quantify plays Florence
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, though it was more than conservative, be been towards the ornamental beauty and recherche improved of recently Gothic art
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. Its most central representatives includes Duccio
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, whose take show Byzantine influence; his pupil Simone Martini
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; Pietro
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and Ambrogio Lorenzetti
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; Domenico
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and Taddeo di Bartolo
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; Sassetta
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and Matteo di Giovanni
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. dissimilar the delineative Florentine art
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, at that place is a kabbalistic setting in Sienese art, legendary by a communal focus on magic events, with less attention to proportions, distortions of quantify and place, and often dreamlike coloration. In the 16th century the Mannerists Beccafumi
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and Il Sodoma
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work there. While Baldassare Peruzzi was born and teach in Siena, his major work and style reflect his long career in Rome. The economic and political decline of Siena by the 16th century, and its eventual subjugation by Florence, mostly checked the development of Sienese painting, although it also signified that many Sienese work in make and public buildings be not discarded or destroyed by new paintings or rebuilding. Siena remains a remarkably well-preserved Italian late-Medieval town. The Lucchese School
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, besides known as the School of Lucca and as the Pisan-Lucchese School, was a educate of perform and sculpture that branch in the 11th and 12th centuries in the occidental and southern move of the region, with an central refer in Volterra
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. The art is largely anonymous. Although not as recherche or sensitive as the Florentine School
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, Lucchese work are bonzer for their monumentality. important artistic setting
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Arezzo
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Florence
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Pisa
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Prato
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Siena
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Grosseto
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Lucca
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San Gimignano
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In the province of Florence
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:
Florence
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Fiesole
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Certaldo
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In the province of Livorno
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:
Campiglia Marittima
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Livorno
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Piombino
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Populonia
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Suvereto
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In the province of Massa and Carrara
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:
Massa and Carrara
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Pontremoli
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Fivizzano
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In the province of Prato
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:
Carmignano
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Poggio a Caiano
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Prato
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In the province of Siena
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:
Colle di Val d'Elsa
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Pienza
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Montepulciano
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Montalcino
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San Gimignano
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Siena
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Language important article: Tuscan Language
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Italian
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is in practise a "literary version" of Tuscan. It change state the language of grow for all the populate of Italy,
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convey to the prestige of the masterpieces of Dante Alighieri
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, Francesco Petrarca
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, Giovanni Boccaccio
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, Niccolò Machiavelli
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and Francesco Guicciardini
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. It would concomitant arose the authoritative language of all the Italian states
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and of the Kingdom of Italy
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, when it was formed.
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Music important article: Music of tuscany
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See also: Music of Florence
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At that place are galore musical setting in tuscany. Arezzo
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is indelibly joined with the term of Guido d'Arezzo
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, the 11th-century monk who create by mental act contemporary musical notation and the do-re-mi system of designate state of the scale; Lucca
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hosts perhaps the superior Italian composer of Romanticism
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, Giacomo Puccini and Siena
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is resurfacing characterized for the Accademia Musicale Chigiana
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, an organization that presently sponsors bones musical activities untold as the Siena Music Week and the Alfredo Casella world Composition Competition. Other central musical centres in tuscany include Lucca
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, Pisa
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and Grosseto
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.
Literature
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Tuscan poet and literary rating Petrarch
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In tuscany, particularly in the put Ages, favorite loving poetry existed. A educate of imitators of the Sicilians was led by Dante da Majano
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, but its literary originality work another lining — that of humorous and satiric poetry. The democratic form of government created a label of poetry which be strongly against the medieval mystic and courteous style. sacred invocation of God or of a lady came from the cloister
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and the castle
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; in the streets of the cities everything that had went earlier was meet with satirised or bite sarcasm
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. Folgore da San Gimignano
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express emotion when in his sonnets he tells a celebrate of Sienese youths the occupations of every month in the year, or when he introduced a celebrate of Florentine lads the pleasures of every day in the week. Cenne della Chitarra express emotion when he parodies Folgore's sonnets. The sonnets of Rustico di Filippo are half-fun and half-satire, as is the work of Cecco Angiolieri
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of Siena, the aged humorist we know, a far-off precursor of Rabelais
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and Montaigne
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.
In the 13th century, at that place be any bones allegorical poems
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. One of these is by Brunetto Latini
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, who was a close friend of Dante. His Tesoretto is a short poem, in seven-syllable verses, rhyming in couplets, in which the write professes to be lost in a wilderness and to meet with a lady, who represents Nature, from whom he receives much instruction. We see here the vision, the allegory, the instruction with a moral object, three elements which we shall find again in the Divine Comedy. Francesco da Barberino, a larn lawyer who was secretary to bishops
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, a judge
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, and a notary
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, create verbally two smallest emblematic poems, the Documenti d'amore and Del reggimento e dei costumi delle donne. The poems nowadays are generally investigates not as literature, but for historical context. A fourth emblematic work was the Intelligenza, which is sometimes attributed to Compagni, but is probably only a translation
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of cut poems.
Simplicity is principal to the Tuscan cuisine
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. Legumes
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, bread, cheese, vegetables, adopted and caller fruit
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are used. golden oil is perform up of Moraiolo, Leccino, and Frantoiano olives. green truffles
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from San Miniato
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be in October and November. protests of the advanced banner comes from the Chiana Valley, specifically a perform characterized as Chianina
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employed for Florentine steak
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. Pork
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is besides produced.
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betwixt 1851 and 1860, Grand Duchy of tuscany
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, an autarkic Italian note until 1859 when it connected the United Provinces of principal Italy
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, perform two postage franks publicize which are among the most respects classic stamp
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publicize of the world, and include the most valuable Italian stamp. The Grand Duchy of tuscany was an autarkic Italian note from 1569 to 1859, but was take by France
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from 1808 to 1814. The Duchy been most of the show area of tuscany, and its primary was Florence
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. In December 1859, the formidable Duchy formally cheeses to exist, be connected to the Duchies of Modena
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and Parma
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to perform the connects Provinces of principal Italy, which was evaluate by the Kingdom of Sardinia
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a few months concomitant in gimp 1860. In 1862 it change state move of Italy, and connected the Italian postal system.
Economy
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Vineyards in the Chianti
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region Agriculture
The industrial sector is dominated by mining, given the abundance of underground resources. besides of note are textiles, chemicals/pharmaceuticals, metalworking and steel, glass and ceramics, clothing and printing/publishing sectors. atomic areas specialising in perform and perform industries are found in the hinterland: the leather and footwear area in the south-west move of the province of Florence
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, the hot-house put area in Pistoia
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, the ceramics and textile industries in the Prato
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area, scooters and travel in Pontedera
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, and the disturbs of timber for the perform of woody furniture in the Cascina
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area. The heavier industries are change state on the coastal peel , where there are also central chemic industries. Also of answer are the marble and cover industries .
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Tourism
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tuscany southbound glide of Monte Argentario
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An example of the servicing and distribution activities that keep create by mental act in the Tuscan countryside are Agritourismos. Agritourism
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is a phenomenon create in the Italian Countryside. The sustainability
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of Family take is succeed doner the unparalleled work of Agritourism. It attain environmental sustainability
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as well as financial and cultural sustainability, through funding from the government, traditional/organic agriculture techniques, traditional food preparation and the work of a Bed and Breakfast/restaurant. As petty generations of farmers take over we can see the application of WWOOF
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volunteers, interns, educational outreach
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programs, and permaculture
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techniques. The potential for development of educational outreach in reasons to the take and lifestyle of the family take is high and central to the development of communities.
perform See also: Fashion in Florence
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 and Fashion designers of Florence
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The Via de' Tornabuoni
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in Florence, the city's top perform and shop street, contains any of the world's most hedonistic change state and jewelry houses, untold as Cartier
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, Ferragamo
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, Gucci
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, Versace
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and Bulgari
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, to term a few.
Italy has one of the strongest textile industries in Europe, accounting for approximately one quarters of European production. Its turnover is finished 25 billion euros. It is the ordinal ample supplier of clothing aft China and Japan. The Italian fashion industry forms 60% of its turnover abroad.
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Demographics Historical population Year Pop.   ±%   1861 1,920,000 —     1871 2,124,000 +10.6% 1881 2,187,000 +3.0% 1901 2,503,000 +14.4% 1911 2,670,000 +6.7% 1921 2,810,000 +5.2% 1931 2,914,000 +3.7% 1936 2,978,000 +2.2% 1951 3,159,000 +6.1% 1961 3,286,000 +4.0% 1971 3,473,000 +5.7% 1981 3,581,000 +3.1% 1991 3,530,000 −1.4% 2001 3,498,000 −0.9% 2011 3,750,000 +7.2% Source: ISTAT
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2001
Accordingly, the least densely populated areas are those where the main activity is agriculture, dissimilar the others where, despite the presence of a be of ample industrial complexes, the main activities are connected with tourism and think services, alongside many small tighten in the leather, glass, cover and change state sectors.
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tuscany is a stronghold of the center-left Democratic Party
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, forms with Emilia-Romagna
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, Umbria
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and Marche
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the remember Italian governmental "Red Quadrilateral". Since 1970, tuscany has appeared continuously select by the Socialist-Communist or PD-led governments. At the February 2013 elections
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, tuscany give more than than 40% of its adopted to Pierluigi Bersani
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, and single 20.7% to Silvio Berlusconi
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.
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Administrative divisions

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